DESCRIPTION: He has studied culture, nonverbal behavior, and emotion for over 30 years and has published over journal articles in peer-reviewed, scientific journals. He is the recipient of many awards and honors in the field of psychology, including being named a G.Arthur Araujo: I would love to see what its like to date an Irish man or woman.
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Computerised analysis of facial emotion expression in eating disorders
2 Jun Another similar study investigating spontaneous facial expressions in patients with BN and binge eating disorder during the same computer game, found that However, further research is required to gain a clear understanding of emotion expression in different forms of ED and different stages of recovery. International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods Vol.5, No. 3, pp, July ___Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (receptite.info) ANALYSING QUALITATIVE DATA USING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN AN EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO Nashwa. 1 Feb potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT constrained local models; facial expression recognition; support vector machines; spontaneous.
Problems with social-emotional processing are known to be an important contributor to Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview development and maintenance of eating disorders EDs. Diminished facial communication of emotion has been frequently reported in individuals with anorexia nervosa AN. This study aimed to pilot the use of computerised facial expression analysis software to investigate emotion expression across the ED spectrum and recovery in a large sample of participants.
Participants watched film clips designed to elicit happy or sad emotions, and facial expressions were then analysed using FaceReader. The finding mirrored those from previous work showing that healthy control and Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview participants expressed significantly more positive emotions during the positive clip compared to the AN group. There were no differences in emotion expression during the sad film clip.
These findings support the use of computerised methods to analyse emotion expression in EDs. The findings also demonstrate that reduced positive emotion expression is likely to be associated with the acute stage of AN illness, with individuals with BN showing an intermediate profile.
Facial expressions are part of body language and important social signals, which play a crucial role in social communication and interaction [ 1 ]. Communicating positive emotion contributes to social relationships, signalling social integration, and facilitating cooperation and affiliation [ 1 ]. Moreover, expression of negative emotions may have subjective benefits, reducing physiological arousal during exposure to negative emotional stimuli [ 3 ]. Difficulties in social-emotional communication have been documented in eating disorders ED and are believed to contribute to the Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview and maintenance of disordered eating [ 4 ].
Specifically, it has been proposed that individuals with anorexia nervosa AN perceive emotions as a threat [ 5 ], and behaviours such as dietary restriction or excessive exercise may help them to avoid distressing emotions and to provide a sense of control [ 67 ]. Thus, the ED would function as a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy numbing the expression of emotions, which leads to social isolation and family conflicts [ 48 ]. Despite lack of theoretical framework, based on behavioural findings similar maladaptive coping mechanisms are likely to be present in other forms of ED.
A recent meta-analysis found that relative to healthy individuals, people with AN displayed less positive facial affect with a large effect size in response to a variety of positive stimuli, ranging from pure emotion to short clips extracted from famous films [ 9 ].
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview, relative to healthy individuals, people with AN also displayed less congruent facial affect with a medium effect size in response to negative emotional stimuli [ 9 ]. Still, the studies included in the meta-analyses did not report significant differences between healthy control HC and AN groups in subjective positive and negative affect reported after exposure to the emotional stimuli [ 10 — 13 ].
Thus, there appears to be converging evidence demonstrating that people with AN have reduced facial expressivity of emotions while viewing emotionally provoking stimuli [ 9 ].
Emotion expression has been less studied in people with bulimia nervosa BN [ 111415 ]. Results reported that the BN group displayed significantly more negative facial affect than HC participants during the game [ 15 ]. Another similar study investigating spontaneous facial expressions in patients with BN and binge eating disorder during the same computer game, found that the patients expressed significantly less positive and negative Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview affect than HCs [ 16 ].
Other studies investigating expression of positive and Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview emotion in people with BN have found no differences between BN and HC participants in spontaneous positive and negative facial expressions in response to emotional film clips or during verbal expression of emotions when asked to talk about positive and negative emotional experiences [ 1114 ].
Together, these findings suggest that there is currently little certainty about anomalies in facial expressivity in BN. Even fewer studies thus far have investigated expression of facial affect among people who have Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview from AN. These studies have reported no significant differences between recovered and HC participants in expression of positive or negative affect in response to emotionally provoking film clips [ 1718 ].
However, further research is required to gain a clear understanding of emotion expression in different forms of ED and different stages of recovery. Most of the studies in eating disorders have examined emotion expression utilising manual coding systems, such as the Facial Expression Coding System [ 19 ]. However, such manual coding methods require extensive training, are labour-intensive, time consuming
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview potentially problematic for interrater reliability [ 1920 ].
Additionally, manual coding can be confounded by human error and bias. Furthermore, as facial EMG records electrical signal from muscle fibres it can be confounded by muscle movements that are not related to emotional facial expressions arising from speech, muscle fatigue, or other activities and responses [ 21 — 23 ]. Using computerised automated facial affect recognition software that can classify facial expressions from still images and video and provide information about the intensity of the emotion expressed can be methodologically and ecologically more sound and robust [ 24 ].
To our knowledge few studies have thus far employed such technology to investigate anomalies in emotion expression in ED. The aim of the current study was to pool together data from previous studies [ 1112172526 ] as well as new and unpublished data in order to create a large dataset relating to emotion expression in people with ED across the diagnostic spectrum and stage of recovery.
With this large dataset, we aimed to pilot the use of a computerised facial expression analysis software, the FaceReader, in ED. Based on previous work outlined above, we that people with current ED would display less facial affect while viewing emotionally provoking stimuli compared to HC participants and people recovered from AN.
Two hundred and ninety-seven participants were recruited between and All ED participants had been diagnosed by clinicians and met the diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM Participants were excluded from the study if they were male, were diagnosed with neurological disorders, or had a history of or current alcohol or drug abuse.
Additionally, HC participants were excluded if they had a history of, or Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview current diagnosis of, a psychiatric disorder or were taking regular medication.
In addition to a global score the EDEQ also provides an assessment of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern over the past 28 days. The studies from which the data was acquired used two different self-report measures to assess depression and anxiety: The HADS is a items self-report assessment of feelings of anxiety and depression experienced over the past over the past week [ 29 ].
The DASS is a item self-report assessment of depression, anxiety, and stress experienced over the past week [ 30 ]. During the film task participants were presented with two video clips lasting 2—2. The first film clip, Film 1, featured a humorous scene from the film Four weddings and a funeral and was used to evoke positive emotions. The second film clip, Film 2, featured a sad scene from the film Shadowlands and was used to evoke negative emotions, particularly sadness.
A manipulation check was conducted as a part of the statistical analysis, to ensure the film clips elicited the intended emotions as opposed to the opposite emotions. The two film clips were presented in a fixed order. To reduce carry-over effects from one film clip to the other, the clips were separated by a brief clip featuring computer generated waves lasting 30 seconds for more details Davies, Schmidt The FaceReader can detect six basic emotions, happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust, as well as neutral states.
The FaceReader can also analyse valence of facial expressions as well as general state of arousal. The video stimuli are analysed frame-by-frame detecting the intensity to which each of the six basic emotions are expressed on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates the emotion is not present and 1 indicates maximum intensity.
In the current study we focused on emotions the film clips were designed to elicit, happiness and sadness. The videos were then analysed using the batch analysis mode, Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview analyses each video sequentially without need for supervision. The video recordings were pooled from datasets of previously published studies [ 1112172526 ]. In addition to including published data, previously unpublished data from these studies was also included.
This data was not published as part of the above studies for a variety of reasons, including having been only recently collected and not meeting sample size requirements alone. All data was analysed with Stata 14 Stata Corp. Group differences in questionnaire data were investigated with non-parametric median chi-squared test. Prior to statistical analysis Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview facial expression proportion data was transformed out of the fixed range between 0 and 1 with the arcsine transformation to allow further analysis.
Facial expression data was then entered into mixed effects linear model with bootstrap repetitions using the mixed command. Significant effects and interactions were further explored post-hoc contrasts and pairwise comparisons.
Confidence intervals in the post-hoc pairwise comparisons were Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni method using the mcompare bonferroni command. Confidence intervals in the correlation analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni method using the bonferroni command.
The sample clinical and demographic characteristics are
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview in Table 1. As expected, there was a significant difference between the groups in BMI, ED psychopathology, anxiety, and depression. The intensity of expressions of happiness during Film 1 and Film 2 are presented in Fig 1.
The manipulation check confirmed that all participants expressed significantly more happiness in response to Film 1 than Film 2 Table 2. There was also a significant effect of group and a significant film by group interaction Table 2. The interaction was further explored by investigating differences between groups within each film condition. The confidence intervals were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.
The intensity of expressions of sadness during Film 1 and Film 2 are presented in Fig 2. The manipulation check confirmed that all participants expressed more sadness while viewing Film 2 than Film 1 Table 2. There were no other significant effects of interactions.
Correlations between expressions of happiness and sadness, and BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, anxiety, and depression are presented in S1 Table. The analysis revealed no significant correlations.
The aim of the present study was to pilot the use of automated facial expression analysis software in a large group of people with ED HC participants.
The present study showed that relative to HC and RecAN participants, people with AN displayed less positive facial affect, happiness, in response to the humorous Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview clip.
Additionally, there were trend level differences between the BN and AN participants in expression of positive affect during the humorous film clip. There were no significant group differences in facial expressivity while viewing the sad film. Finally, the present findings show that automated facial expression analysis software is a useful tool investigating expressions in facial affect in healthy and in clinical populations.
The findings from the automated facial expression analysis are in line with previous work showing that relative to RecAN and HC participants, people with AN show attenuation of positive facial affect in response to a variety of emotionally provoking stimuli [ 9 ]. Additionally, the present results also replicate previous findings that reduced facial expressivity may be part of acute illness and possibly exaggerated by starvation [ 1718 ].
One possible interpretation of these findings is that reduced expression in the acute stage of illness is part of maladaptive emotion regulation based on avoidance and suppression. Indeed, relative to healthy individuals, people with acute AN report greater tendency to rely on emotion avoidance and suppression
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview 631 ]. Furthermore, a recent systematic review found that people recovered from AN were similar to HCs, reporting less emotion avoidance and suppression than those with acute AN [ 31 ].
Another possible interpretation is that people with acute AN may express less positive affect due to reduced interest and desire to seek positive emotional experiences [ 32 — 34 ]. Previous studies have found that relative to HCs, people with acute AN report more social anhedonia, which correlated highly with eating disorder psychopathology, and elevated incidence of autistic symptoms [ 32333536 ].
Qualitative studies have also found that people with AN report limited friendship networks and poor friendship quality [ 3738 ]. Additionally, behavioural studies have found that people with acute AN show attentional avoidance of positive emotional
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview, and report low perceived social rank and increased external shame [
Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview — 41 ].
Interestingly, a recent systematic review found that people who have recovered from AN report increased desire to seek pleasure in social interactions and relationships, and less submissiveness and tendency to engage in negative social comparisons [ 31 ]. Thus, people in the acute stage of AN may have reduced desire to engage with positive emotionally provoking stimuli leading to reduced expression of positive facial affect.
The present findings showed that people with BN displayed marginally more positive facial affect than the people with AN, but were not significantly different from the HCs.
These findings are some way supported by recent systematic reviews, which have reported that both AN and BN were characterised by emotion dysregulation based on emotion and situation avoidance [ 3142 ]. However, BN has also been suggested to be characterised by elevated sensation seeking, urgency, and difficulties in behavioural inhibition during times of distress [ 4243 ]. Additionally, a large scale cohort found that BN diagnosis and bulimic symptoms clustered together with mid-to-high incidence of novelty seeking [ 44 ].
Interestingly, a recent study investigating spontaneous facial expression and personality traits in BN and binge eating disorder, found increased positive facial expression was positive associated with novelty and reward seeking, while increased expression on anger was negatively associated with self-directedness [ 16 ].
However, it is of note that in the present study the BN participants were not Investigating facial expression in qualitative interview different from the HCs.
Hope+doubt=passion on the long run?2 Jun Another similar study investigating spontaneous facial expressions in patients with BN and binge eating disorder during the same computer game, found that However, further research is required to gain a clear understanding of emotion expression in different forms of ED and different stages of recovery. 1 Feb potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT constrained local models; facial expression recognition; support vector machines; spontaneous..
Reading facial expressions of emotion
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- International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods Vol.5, No. 3, pp, July ___Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (receptite.info) ANALYSING QUALITATIVE DATA USING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN AN EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO Nashwa. 2 Jun sis software to investigate emotion expression across the ED spectrum and recovery in a large sample of neous facial expressions in patients with BN and binge eating disorder during the same com- .. ED, future research may benefit from further investigating expression of facial affect in BN, in different.
- 7 Jan basic themes or topic areas of the investigation are likely determined ahead of time, but not the sequence or interviewed by phone or in person (i.e., face-to- face)? Little research has compared the benefits of . interviewer have access to facial expressions, gestures, and other paraverbal communications.
- Problems with social-emotional processing are known to be an important contributor to the development and maintenance of eating disorders EDs.
In communication, both verbal and non-verbal means ensure that a message is conveyed, and facial expressions are acknowledged as one of the most influential factors in non-verbal communication.
Facial Analysis Coding System FACS is a tool to analyse data other than the spoken language to improve a researcher's reading of an interviewee's emotions, and proposes a methodology to support the annotation process of facial expressions in a piece of communication.
This study investigates an applied framework for FACS in an educational scenario. The study combines both the computerised and manual entries in the applied method.
The study addresses the challenges, findings and recommendations of this applied method. These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually. Algorithmic methods have been applied in an attempt to remove automated downloads from the displayed statistics but no guarantee can be made as to the accuracy of the figures. Full text available as: Download history for this item These details should be considered as only a guide to the number of downloads performed manually.
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Aggregate 17 , No. Interviews are a staple method used into qualitative research. Many authors remain face-to-face interviews to be the gold standard, or the expropriated best mode in which near conduct interviews.
However, a roomy number of research projects are based on conducting interviews stopping at telephone. While some scholars engage in addressed the advantages and disadvantages of using telephones to direction interviews, this work is strew across multiple disciplines and lacks a cohesive, comprehensive framework. The current article seeks to adjust this gap in the brochures, by explicitly developing the constructs of the interviewer context also the respondent context. By tentative key components in each of these contexts, the qualitative interviewer can make an informed, absorbed decision about the best to mode to use for a particular project.
Qualitative interviews take long been an essential scrutinize method. In the qualitative concept, interviews are often seen to the same extent one of the best behaviour to "enter into the erstwhile person's perspective" PATTON, , p. As a research method, interviews have been written about extensively for several decades e.
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2 Jun Another similar study investigating spontaneous facial expressions in patients with BN and binge eating disorder during the same computer game, found that However, further research is required to gain a clear understanding of emotion expression in different forms of ED and different stages of recovery. Hyi Sung Hwang, is a Research Scientist at Humintell, LLC. Her research interests are in emotion, nonverbal behaviors, and culture. She is an expert at the Facial Action Coding System and in the conduct of research examining facial expressions and other nonverbal behaviors. She is co-creator of many of the training tools. required analytic distance. What is investigated. This thesis investigates the methodological consequences of implementing visual data into the BNIM. To support this investigation I develop a conceptual framework for analyzing facial expressions in the. BNIM. The research is split up in two parts. I Begin with a theoretical.